Emergency Phase

A senior AMURT volunteer handed over relief goods to a senior victims. Spreading the motivation "Even though we are old, but our spirit must be young"

 

A senior AMURT staff is doing the final checking of the distributed items. Making sure that that the quality and quantity are sufficient

 

Earthquake victims patiently waiting for their turn to receive the hygiene and kitchen kits distributed by AMURT, accompanied by some volunteers.

 

Even though the earthquake demolished nearly everything, it didn't destroy the fate to God of this lady and also many other people

 

AMURT Volunteers are very busy to check, upload and manage the relief distribution goods on a truck. They work hard to make sure the distribution is running well.

 

Several bamboo are used to hold the further leaning of this building

 

One of thousands of houses which are demolished due to the earthquake

 

Some children are very happy when they got some plastic mats and hygiene kits. Their homes are destroy and they have to live in tent.

 

A grandmother and her granddaughter receive a hygiene and kitchen kit in the distribution

 

 

Reconstruction

             

Besides reconstructing schools, AMURT also provided them with some basic learning materials. Childrens were very happy and eager to help carrying the goods. Here we see how UNITY CREATE POWER.

After witnessing the effect of the earthquake which killed more than 6,000 people, AMURT decided to reconstruct several kindergartens with a higher standard than the normal one, as we understand that each life is precious and worth more than anything.

AMURT held a ground breaking ceremony to start the construction of the school. Here we engaged the community and also promoting bamboo as an alternative construction materials. The kindergarten students had some art performance during the ceremony and shook our hands to show their gratitude.

Before starting to build the schools, AMURT always consults with the local community and also the school committee about the design and any other aspects related to the construction.

A nice architectural view of bamboo combine with concrete material

From inside you can see the beauty of bamboo as a construction material.

AMURT reconstructed three kindergarten following the earthquake on 2006. All of them are built using combination of bamboo and concrete materials. They offer strength, beauty, cultural appropriateness and also environmental friendliness.
 
 

Earthquake

An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of stored energy in the Earth’s crust that creates seismic waves.

An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of stored energy in the Earth’s crust that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes are accordingly measured with a seismometer, commonly known as a seismograph. The magnitude of an earthquake is conventionally reported using the Richter scale or a related Moment scale (with magnitude 3 or lower earthquakes being hard to notice and magnitude 7 causing serious damage over large areas).

At the Earth’s surface, earthquakes may manifest themselves by a shaking or displacement of the ground. Sometimes, they cause tsunamis, which may lead to loss of life and destruction of property. An earthquake is caused by tectonic plates getting stuck and putting a strain on the ground. The strain becomes so great that rocks give way by breaking and sliding along fault planes.

Earthquakes may occur naturally or as a result of human activities. Smaller earthquakes can also be caused by volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear experiments. In its most generic sense, the word earthquake is used to describe any seismic event—whether a natural phenomenon or an event caused by humans—that generates seismic waves.

An earthquake’s point of initial ground rupture is called its focus or hypocenter. The term epicenter means the point at ground level directly above this.

Most naturally occurring earthquakes are related to the tectonic nature of the Earth. Such earthquakes are called tectonic earthquakes. The Earth’s lithosphere is a patchwork of plates in slow but constant motion caused by the release to space of the heat in the Earth’s mantle and core. The heat causes the rock in the Earth to become flow on geological timescales, so that the plates move slowly but surely. Plate boundaries lock as the plates move past each other, creating frictional stress. When the frictional stress exceeds a critical value, called local strength, a sudden failure occurs. The boundary of tectonic plates along which failure occurs is called the fault plane. When the failure at the fault plane results in a violent displacement of the Earth’s crust, the elastic strain energy is released and seismic waves are radiated, thus causing an earthquake. This process of strain, stress, and failure is referred to as the Elastic-rebound theory. It is estimated that only 10 percent or less of an earthquake’s total energy is radiated as seismic energy. Most of the earthquake’s energy is used to power the earthquake fracture growth and is converted into heat, or is released to friction. Therefore, earthquakes lower the Earth’s available potential energy and raise its temperature, though these changes are negligible.[1]

The majority of tectonic earthquakes originate at depths not exceeding tens of kilometers. In subduction zones, where older and colder oceanic crust descends beneath another tectonic plate, Deep focus earthquakes may occur at much greater depths (up to seven hundred kilometers). These seismically active areas of subduction are known as Wadati-Benioff zones. These are earthquakes that occur at a depth at which the subducted lithosphere should no longer be brittle, due to the high temperature and pressure. A possible mechanism for the generation of deep focus earthquakes is faulting caused by olivine undergoing a phase transition into a spinel structure.[2]

Earthquakes may also occur in volcanic regions and are caused there both by tectonic faults and by the movement of magma in volcanoes. Such earthquakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions.

A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later, and with some of the later earthquakes as damaging as the early ones. Such a pattern was observed in the sequence of about a dozen earthquakes that struck the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey in the 20th century, the half dozen large earthquakes in New Madrid in 1811-1812, and has been inferred for older anomalous clusters of large earthquakes in the Middle East and in the Mojave Desert.

Size and frequency of occurrence

Small earthquakes occur nearly constantly around the world in places like California and Alaska in the U.S., as well as in Chile, Peru, Indonesia, Iran, the Azores in Portugal, New Zealand, Greece and Japan.[3] Large earthquakes occur less frequently, the relationship being exponential; for example, roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than magnitude 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. In the (low seismicity) United Kingdom, for example, it has been calculated that the average recurrences are:

* an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every year
* an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years
* an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years.

The number of seismic stations has increased from about 350 in 1931 to many thousands today. As a result, many more earthquakes are reported than in the past because of the vast improvement in instrumentation (not because the number of earthquakes has increased). The USGS estimates that, since 1900, there have been an average of 18 major earthquakes (magnitude 7.0-7.9) and one great earthquake (magnitude 8.0 or greater) per year, and that this average has been relatively stable.[4] In fact, in recent years, the number of major earthquakes per year has actually decreased, although this is likely a statistical fluctuation. More detailed statistics on the size and frequency of earthquakes is available from the USGS.[5]

Most of the world’s earthquakes (90%, and 81% of the largest) take place in the 40,000-km-long, horseshoe-shaped zone called the circum-Pacific seismic belt, also known as the Pacific Ring of Fire, which for the most part bounds the Pacific Plate.[6][7] Massive earthquakes tend to occur along other plate boundaries, too, such as along the Himalayan Mountains.

There are many effects of earthquakes including, but not limited to the following:

Shaking and ground rupture

Shaking and ground rupture are the main effects created by earthquakes, principally resulting in more or less severe damage to buildings or other rigid structures. The severity of the local effects depends on the complex combination of the earthquake magnitude, the distance from epicenter, and the local geological and geomorphological conditions, which may amplify or reduce wave propagation. The ground-shaking is measured by ground acceleration.

Specific local geological, geomorphological, and geostructural features can induce high levels of shaking on the ground surface even from low-intensity earthquakes. This effect is called site or local amplification. It is principally due to the transfer of the seismic motion from hard deep soils to soft superficial soils and to effects of seismic energy focalization owing to typical geometrical setting of the deposits.

Landslides and avalanches

Earthquakes can cause landslides and avalanches, which may cause damage in hilly and mountainous areas.

Fires

Following an earthquake, fires can be generated by break of the electrical power or gas lines. In the event of water mains rupturing and a loss of pressure, it may also become difficult to stop the spread of a fire once it has started.

Soil liquefaction

Soil liquefaction occurs when, because of the shaking, water-saturated granular material temporarily loses its strength and transforms from a solid to a liquid. Soil liquefaction may cause rigid structures, as buildings or bridges, to tilt or sink into the liquefied deposits.

Tsunamis

Undersea earthquakes and earthquake-triggered landslides into the sea, can cause Tsunamis. See, for example, the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake.

Human impacts

Earthquakes may result in disease, lack of basic necessities, loss of life, higher insurance premiums, general property damage, road and bridge damage, and collapse of buildings or destabilization of the base of buildings which may lead to collapse in future earthquakes

Relief phase

Aceh relief goods distribution

Aceh relief worker looking for dead bodies

Aceh relief materials distribution

Aceh releif materials distribuition

Aceh relief materials distribution

Aceh relief material distribution

Aceh relief camp psycho social work

Aceh relief materials distribution

Aceh dead body recovery
 

Rehabilitation

Aceh organic farm training

Aceh internet access program for students

Aceh livelihood baking program

Aceh organic farm training

Aceh eye camp

Aceh temporary school in refugee camp

Acehnese volunteer brighten up the day for a child in refugee camp

Acehnese children dance to celebrate the construction of their new school

Acehnese students get new uniforms

Acehnese women are trained in sewing
 

Reconstruction

Aceh business reconstruction (brick kilns)

 

Aceh kindegarten construction

 

Environmental cleanup

 

Acehnese orphange build by AMURT

 

Aceh seconday school gets renovated

 

Aceh kindergarten is rebuild

 

Aceh Kiln owner gets grant to rebuild his ovens

 

 

AMURT visiting card sample

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The People In Aid Code of Good Practice, 2007

People In Aid was created by the sector with a single remit: to encourage improvements in the way that staff are managed and supported. We were also created as a network of members, so that NGOs committed to improving their human resource management could do so together and had a central resource to assist them. Initially, best practice was identified and disseminated through the “People In Aid Code of Best Practice in the management and support of aid personnel”. The Code itself was drawn up between 1995 and 1997 through extensive consultation. Although originally driven by agencies in the UK and Ireland, with funding from the UK government’s then Overseas Development Administration, the input on best practice also came from the UN family, from the USA, from Continental Europe and from the human resources and field.

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